Iaido (or Iaijutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, chopping down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement.
The emphasis is on drawing the sword and attacking as quickly as possible. Starting positions can be from combative postures or from everyday sitting or standing positions.
Practitioners could expect a surprise attack at any time, and the ability to react quickly from an everyday starting position was considered essential.
An original dater of 1200AD has been claimed, but some time during the late 15th or early 16th century is more likely.
While not a hard and fast rule, frequently the word iaido is used to refer to the modern self improvement oriented form taught by the ZNKR while iaijutsu is used for the older, combative techniques of the koryu
Hachiko is more than a statue or a tale, he was a real dog who's story is known throughout Japan and the world today. The word Hachiko has come to be synonymous with loyalty, and for good reason.
The story has a few variations depending on who tells it but the basic facts are well documented.